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Eclecticism and Revivalism

Origins --- Belief System --- Political Situation --- Eclecticism

Classical Revival -----Le Panthéon --_Madeleine ---Petite Trianon _-_Arc de Triomphe

---Buckingham Palace___Bath Royal Circle ---Bath Royal Crescent --- Gibside--

Palladian Villa Rotunda --- Finland (Helsinki)---- Russia (St. Petersburg) ----

Gothic Revival---- _--Ruskin and Pugin_--Parliament Buildings__Abbey____

Romanticism_---Portugal (Sintra) ----Netherlands (Amsterdam) --- - Latvia (Riga) ---- Scotland (Glasgow )

Beaux Arts _---Canada (Hamilton) ----Netherlands (Amsterdam) --- - Latvia (Riga) ---- Scotland (Glasgow )

Belle Epoche_---Spain (Bilbao) ----Germany (Cologne) --- - France (Paris) ---- Italy (Syracusa)


A look at a portrait of King Louis XIV of France in his official state uniform is all that you need to understand the mindset and the times of the Baroque and Rococo periods.



Yes, here is a middle aged man who is happy to be immortalized wearing high heeled shoes, tight white silk stockings, a pair of lovely white satin bloomers, yards of ermine lined velvet with his personal crest hand embroidered on, and a wig that would make any Country-Western singer proud. Wretched excess, a lack of concern for moderation, and a taste for theatre and pageantry can be seen in both Louis XIV's wardrobe and in the buildings that he and his equals built throughout Europe. The French Revolution of 1789-1799 was the reaction to this. As can be seen in a wide variety of excellent books and films on this subject the population of all European countries were not impressed.

While the seventeenth century was a time of great political upheavals, plague, fire and war, it also saw a world becoming more rational, more literate and more accepting of opposing ideas.

Renaissance thinkers had introduced ideas about the world and nature that had been suppressed by both courts and the church. Scientists and thinkers, however, could not be so easily repressed, and they kept these ideas alive often in the face of persecution, even death. Seventeenth century thinkers had gone one step further. They split nature from the supernatural. Publishing and advanced travel had changed the middle and lower class mind set. The populace was not going to remain as ignorant as they were in the thirteenth century, regardless of how much effort was expended in that direction. Rationalism had taken hold.

Belief System

For the Renaissance mind, a belief in angels and demons and the idea that they might be purveyors of psychic energy would have been as palpable as a twenty first century person believing in space travel and Martians.

Prior to the Renaissance, occult sciences were a very real part of society. Both Catholic and Protestant Christians developed a hatred for the occult seeing it as a diabolical force that could conjure evil spirits and demons. When James I took the throne in England, 1603, one of his first jobs was to deal with all the witches and demons that Elizabeth, the enemy of his mother, had left fluttering around his many castles. Prince Charles writes books about architecture, heritage and over population. King James I wrote books on demonology. They were both responding to the most prevalent problems of their own societies. Midway between these two was the Enlightenment.

The Enlightenment is a term used for the philosophy, culture and artistic attitudes of the eighteenth century based on social reform, a reaction to the monarchies of all countries and their access, as well as a reaction to the church based belief in faith as opposed to reason.

Political Situation

Europe in the eighteenth century was ruled by a series of monarchies all intrinsically linked with either the Catholic or the Protestant church. The upper classes of one country married the upper classes of another for political and economic reasons. There was a growing middle class. The guild systems in most countries had become more powerful. Guilds and other professional associations such as the Freemasons offered a means to social and professional respectability outside the regular channels of court or religious life.

Revivalism and Eclecticism

Since time immemorial, mankind has felt that the divine spirit can be contacted through the arrangement and refinement of stone structures. Through Easter Island, Ankor Wat, Persepolis, the Pyramids, The Acropolis, the Pantheon, and a multitude of Romanesque and Gothic Cathedrals, this urge to find God manifest in stone has continued.

Revival and eclectic architecture in the 18th and 19th centuries was dedicated to a study of first Greek, then Gothic architecture and the application of the proportions and intentions of these styles onto 18th century buildings. Many new building types were introduced as a result of the changing society. Libraries, markets and inns were built to service the traveling population. Buildings were needed to house the new municipal police forces. Public jails were needed where previously criminals had been kept in the castle donjon.

After the French Revolution, the aristocracy and monarchy of most European countries loosened their grip on the common people, and a new social order rose. Western Society had developed through tribalism into empire and feudalism into mercantile capitalism, headed for democracy. What arose in most European countries at this time was an independent professional class that insisted on a rule of law to guarantee contracts. Not only did they amass enough money to commission buildings themselves, but they insisted that the people involved in the building process, from laborers through craftsmen to designers and legal council, all had stability in their employment. This was a huge step forward for architecture.

New buildings to house new civic functions were built using a mixture of traditional stone and brick but using the new building methods including iron or steel framework and glass. The buildings were monuments to Enlightenment ideas of a new social order as well as Christian ideas.


One group of men formalized this urge and created an institution the purpose of which is to consecrate and ritualize man's mastery of stonework in an attempt to reach the divine and do the work of the divine spirit on earth. Just when and where the Freemasons were first established has been a topic of much debate among both Freemasons and outsiders. The official chronicler of the history of Freemasonry in Britain maintains that the community was formed in the very early eighteenth century; the first official meeting is said to have taken place in London in 1717. Whatever the history, the incidence of Masonic imagery on Revival buildings in this era is interesting.

No one can prove that by providing buildings with perfect proportions, covering them with sacred and mystical images, and providing ceremonies with costumes and legendary rituals, mankind will be closer to universal harmony, but, at the same time, no one can prove that it won't.



Classical Revival

The Classical Revival was fueled in part by the new study of archeology. Due to improved travel methods and safety, a visit to Greece was an accepted part of the education of men and, sometimes, women of means. Greece was controlled by the Ottoman Empire during the 18th century. The British ambassador to the Ottoman Empire, the 7th Earl of Elgin, took advantage of the Ottoman disregard for Classical architecture and obtained permission to remove the majority of fine sculpture from the Parthenon and other buildings on the Acropolis in order to preserve them in England. These can now be viewed in the British Museum, London England.

If both the Renaissance and the Classical Revival are harkening back to the Classics for inspiration, what then is the difference between the two? The difference is that the Renaissance masters were much more involved in the mathematics of the proportions and based their design on harmony and balance of form. The Pazzi Chapel doesn't look anything like the Roman Pantheon, but it is based on the same principles. The Greek Revival, however, is based on a study of images, drawings and proportion studies, often romantic images rather than mathematical as in the books of Alberti and Palladio. The Greek Revival is more a historic movement where the Renaissance was more stylistic. An easier way to summarize the difference is "the temple front". Almost all Greek or Classical revival buildings have temple fronts. Renaissance buildings never do.

The Classical Revival was interested in the vocabulary of the Greek forms: the temple front, the frieze of triglyph and metopes, the application of Classical detailing as opposed to Classical principles. The Renaissance looked back to the Roman era while the Classical Revival looks back to the Greek. The Renaissance was looking for harmony of form for spiritual reasons. The people of the Enlightenment looked back to the Greeks because they were a diplomatic society, not a monarchy. The social structure of the Greek system and the ideas of politics, philosophy and community were more important to the Classical Revival than harmonious form.

All religions and philosophies that gain any popular ground do so on the promise of universal harmony and peace, with the underlying possibility of power for those who are true believers. In England, on the continent, and in the many European colonies throughout the world, Classical Revival architecture was used to portray the ideas of society and equality that the new philosophy of Enlightenment provided. While the buildings have an elegant simplicity of form, they are seen as reflecting good taste more than spiritual harmony. The vocabulary of Greek architecture is used first as a structural basis for the form, the columns being structural, the architraves providing lateral support. Near the end of the eclectic era, the structural aspect of the form has almost completely disappeared and the Greek elements are often added as decoration with no more structural integrity than wallpaper.

Le Panthéon Paris 1753

The church of St. Geneviève in Paris is the first building to reflect the ideas of the Classical Revival. Renamed, unfortunately, Le Panthéon after the building became secularized, this building reflects the growing interest in archeology. It is based on the original Pantheon in Rome and has many of the same structural elements.

The front of the building is a Greek temple front but with an unusual arrangement of columns. The entablature is straight and supports a pediment with a sculpture in the tympanum, as it would have been on both the Parthenon and the Pantheon in Rome had not some enterprising individuals found fit to remove them.

The plan is a Greek cross with the front portico being the longest branch.

Le Pantheon France

Panthéon Interior

The interior of the Panthéon is clearly different from anything that would be found in either Classical Greece or Rome, but is also, clearly, based on those designs.

The central dome is 100 feet (30 metres) high and 69 feet (21 metres) in diameter. Each of the four branches of the cross have smaller domes with decorative coffers, much like those on the original Pantheon.

The original architectfor the Panthéon was Jacques-Germain Soufflot. His idea was to use classical principles; round-headed arches, columns etc., but provide the light of a Gothic Cathedral, something not found in Roman or Romanesque work. Soufflot died before the project was completed. Those who took over removed all of the exterior main floor windows leaving the only source of light as the clerestories in the domes.


Le Madeleine

The Madeleine in Paris, designed by Vignon, is an octa style (having eight columns) Roman temple. It is also a peripteral temple, a temple with a columned porch on every side. Originally the columns formed a curtain or screen, transparent but still very solid, providing a shaded area around the main cella which was the sanctuary for the god or goddess.

The Madeleine was built as a Christian church in imitation of a Greek temple. Instead of a cella with a monument to the god or goddess, there is an apse with a dome where services are held.

The church looks even more impressive because of the huge expanse of steps and the position of the church on a high podium.


Petite Trianon

The Petite Trianon is the essence of everything good in Classical Revival. "It is one of the most superb pieces of domestic architecture of the century. ( Fletcher, p. 907)

The proportions are sedate and graceful. The south front, featured here, is ornamented with four engaged Corinthian columns on an ashlar surface. They separate five two storey bays of windows. The lower windows are architraved, the upper are not. The building is crowned with a balustraded parapet. The basement storey is a double staircase that leads to a formal garden.


Petite Trianon

The north façade is equally enchanting with Corinthian pillars. The entrance level is rusticated in the way that was stylish at the time. The surface has smooth rustication, rough compared to the ashlar above. The windows are crossetted.

The architect of this masterpeice is Ange-Jacques Gabriel. He was successful in obliterating the Rococco in france and replacing it with this elegant classicism. This style is copied throughout Paris to great effect. The white stone, which actually looks pink, is found on public buildings as well as on private residences in the elegant suburbs like Vesinet that were springing up all over Paris.


Arch de Triomphe du Carrousel - Paris - 1808

The Arch de Triomphe du Carrousel was commissioned by Napoleon I to celebrate his victories in Ulm and Austerlitz. It was dedicated in 1808.

The arch has the same features as the Arch of Septimus Severus on the Via Sacra in Rome. The attic storey, the bronze figures on the top, the large, imposing cornice, are all replicas of the original.

Many differences can be seen, however, in the sculpture. The figures are generally wearing 19th century clothing and carrying 19th century accessories.

There is little doubt that the artists looked very carefully at the original before making this arch.

Paris - Arch de Triomphe du Carrousel cornice spandrel column keystone

Arc de Triomphe

The much celebrated Arc de Triomphe at the top of the Champs Elysee is another monument to victory. It was commissioned by Napoleon I in 1806 to honor the French military, and now serves as a symbol of freedom for France.

Where the Carrousel, above, is closely following the Arch of Septimus Severus, this arch has few archeological characteristics. To start, the attic story has a frieze of triglyphs and metopes crowned with a very "belle epoche" florish of swirls and mascarons.

The cornice and commemorative frieze beneath it are like the Arch of Titus, but nowhere can be found any type of engaged column or pilaster.

The base reliefs on the front faces are also completely un-classical in design.


Arc de Triomphe

Arc de Triomphe

The layout of the arch is not typical of Roman triumphal arches. There is a barrel vault through the center from front to back, then another two barrel vaults from side to side perpendicularly.

The extrados and intrados of the vault archways are heavily moulded. There is egg and dart on the extrados, a small line of beak molding inside that, then a band of ????? followed by a band mold of acanthus.

Above the spandrels is a frieze of Greek Key design, something that is definitely a nineteenth century application.

Even more interesting are the spandrels. On the left we have a figure holding a musket (gun). On the right we have a man with parts of his military uniform.

On the interior walls are the names of battles won during the revolution. The other reliefs are of battles, marching bands, and the triumph of Napoleon.

Arc de Triomphe

Buckingham Palace (1825-1835) John Nash

Buckingham Palace was started in 1703, but the large renovations and enlargements that make up the building that we know today were designed by John Nash and Edward Blore.

The placement of the building and the surrounding urban countryside are an important part of 18th and 19th century British design. The setting is Romantic. Unlike the neatly cropped hedges and geometric forms of the Versailles gardens designed by le Notre, here the palace sits next to a river with landscaping that is remarkably rural for a downtown setting.

Buckingham Palace

Royal Circle Bath

Like France, Britain never really embraced the Baroque style in the way that Austria and Germany did. They had made an earlier return to Classicism with the work of Inigo Jones and the gentle classicism of palladio. This style was seen as the pinnacle of good taste and was thus required for the houses of the new bourgeoisie whose new money was used to create wonderful new towns and suburbs.

The most spectacular of these town plans was produced by John Wood (the elder) and John Wood (the younger) who translated the elegance of the Palladian style not simply into one or two houses, but into a whole town plan.

The Royal Circle in Bath, shown here by John Wood the elder, is a circle of town houses around a circular park. The façades of the buildings have a continuous Palladian rhythm. The golden white sandstone, a local material, is used to great effect on the three tiered regularized frontage.


Bath Crescent frieze Metope echinus fluting frieze architrave metope

Bath Circle

This section of the circle shows one house. It has three floors capped with an ornate parapet. The levels are Doric on the first floor, Ionic on the second and Corinthian on the third, as in the Coliseum in Rome.

Along the top, under the architrave and between the Corinthian capitals are swags that meet at a mascaron. This house has the original windows if not the original glass.


The second level is Ionic, each capital has angled volutes, like those found on the corner of the Athena Nike. The entablature is plain except for a small line of dentils.

The second level would have been the living level for the owners. Often the domestic servants stayed in the upper level or in dormered rooms on the back. Notice that the window is a six over six sash window and the third floor is four over four.

On the street level is the Doric order. There are bases on the columns, so this is obviously Roman Doric. The frieze across the architrave has metopes and triglyphs.

The door is the original panel door with a small transom. There are no window surrounds, no decoration at all except along the frieze.


Bath Royal Circle

Most of the tradesmen who worked on these buildings had pattern books that they could refer to when carving or creating plaster details. A great many pattern books were produced during the eighteenth century. Some had pages of patterns that folded so they could fit into a pocket and be consulted on the job.

The metopes in this design are beautiful natural scenes of fish, birds, trees, reflecting the taste of the owner. The echinus of the Doric capitals has an egg and dart pattern.

Bath Crescent frieze Metope echinus fluting frieze architrave metope

Bath Royal Crescent

Just up the street from the Royal Circle is the Royal Crescent by John Wood the younger. Like the Circle, this is a series of town houses, this time formed in an elliptical curve.

The façade is regularized. The windows in many of these homes have been replaced, but there is still a pleasing rhythm to it. There is a sense of unity and community.


Bath Crescent frieze Metope echinus fluting frieze architrave metope

Bath Royal Crescent

A common lawn sweeps down from the imposing façade to a park that is used for soccer practice and picnics.

Instead of small houses with little patches of lawn in varying stages of disrepair, this common park area provides a much more usable space for everyone.


Bath Crescent frieze Metope echinus fluting frieze architrave metope

Bath Royal Crescent

The roof is a double Mansard with a gully in between. Behind the parapet are the dormer windows for the domestic staff rooms. Before electricity and modern conveniences, staff would be needed to keep up a house this size.

The Giant Order Ionic columns along the front form a continuous colonnaded that stretches along the whole ellipse. Once again the frieze is simple and tasteful with only a very small line of dentils.

As places like Ontario are being cemented over by ever more grandiose concepts of beige on beige nouveau riche splendor, Roman arches piled high with layers of vaguely historicising detail illustrating nothing but the ignorance of the builder and the pretensions of the owner, this simple elegance and the beauty of the streetscape become ever more appealing.

Bath Crescent frieze Metope echinus fluting frieze architrave metope


Another variation on the Palladian theme are the many villas and country houses that were built as almost exact replicas of Palladian designs. This building, just outside Newcastle, England was built as a chapel and is almost an exact replica of Palladio's ????.

Bath Crescent frieze Metope echinus fluting frieze architrave metope


The interior of the chapel is decorated with a multitude of classical moldings, all beautifully cared for. The background colour is tasteful and elegant.

In the center is a three tiered pulpit with an impressive abat-voix.

Bath Crescent frieze Metope echinus fluting frieze architrave metope


This detail of the pendentive that supports the central dome shows the detailing that went into every part of this design.


Each pediment has bands of molding plus a raised detail in the center.

The cornices are huge, supported by modillions.

The columns have Corinthian capitals.



Palladian style in England was much more prevalent than in most other European countries.

Bath Crescent

Villa Rotunda

Not only was Palladio's style and proportioning imitated, the actual buildings themselves were imitated as can be seen by the many buildings around the world that are based on the Villa Rotunda.

Here we can see the basic shape: a dome on top of a square shape, with temple fronts and steps on all four sides. This is a front view.

Helsinki Cathedral

Villa Rotunda

Notice that the back is the same as the front. This photo is taken from the bicycle path behind the villa. There are still spectacular views in every direction, so you can certainly understand the inspiration for this design, much appreciated at the time and much duplicated in the following centuries.

Helsinki Cathedral

Helsinki Cathedral

Carl Ludvig Engel between 1822 and 1852: Helsinki Cathedral,

The architrave is the lintel of the structure. The joints occur over the middle of the capital. These were originally made of wood but were translated , over the centuries, into stone.

Above this are the cross beams running perpendicular to the lintel and carrying the roof load. These are translated into triglyphs. Between the triglyphs square pieces of ceramic tile were added to keep out the rain and drafts. As well as birds or rodents. These are called metopes.

Helsinki Cathedral

Helsinki Cathedral

Of the many interesting bas reliefs on this church, the one that is perhaps most surprising is the Eye of Horus directly under the pediment on the front façade. The Eye of Horus is a well known symbol used by the Freemasons.

Helsinki Cathedral

St. Isaak's Cathedral --St. Petersburg - Russia 1818-1858

Unlike most of the other cities represented in these pages, St. Petersburg is a relatively new city, being established by Peter the Great around 1700. Many buildings found there are Classical Revival because that was the style of architecture at the time that it was built.

This building illustrates the imperial affluence of the era under the tzars. It has huge red granite columns with bronze Corinthian capitals. The dome is also bronze.

French ideas of liberalism were unsuccessful in reaching Russia. Napoleon's army met a terrible fate here.

St. Petersburg

Military Headquarters

Just around the corner is another set of palladian or at least Classical Revival buildings.

St. Petersburg


What you want to be able to do here is see what is happening with these details.

From the top down.

We can see an Ionic colonnade with an entablature. There are dentils, but they are rounded.







Under this is a frieze with a bas relief design.



Under this are triglyphs and metopes - from the Doric order.


Under this are two winged angels.

Under this is a Roman arch with a keystone.

This is Classical vocabulary in a very unclassical design.

Ecclectic Shaft

Industrial Revolution and Gothic Revival

By the early 19th century the theory of Classical architecture had rigidified. There was a strict code of rules specifying which particular branch of the Classical: Doric, Ionic or Corinthian, should be used on a particular building and what decorative features could be used. Architects had little freedom to add their own "signature" to a building. It was against this background of weariness with the Classical on the part of many architects, and a renewed interest in the medieval period, that the Gothic Revival was born.

Ruskin and Pugin

It was to be one of the most important factors shaping the image of Victorian England. Its main proponent was Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin (1812-1852). There was however a long history of "Romantic" or "Gothic" buildings in England, such as Horace Walpole's Gothic villa at Strawberry Hill. Pugin himself was hugely influential and poured out his ideas in a number of passionate books, such as "Contrasts" (1836) and "The True Principles of Pointed or Christian Architecture) (1841). Pugin was the dedicated champion of the Gothic who related architecture to certain principals of religion and life. He believed that there should be one style, as there was one real faith and that good men should only build good buildings.

The adherents of the Gothic Revival held the view that religions had produced their own supreme architectural forms that best expressed their ethos and spirit. Thus Renaissance architecture, which sought its inspiration from the "heathen" temples of Rome, was dismissed as pagan. Only Gothic represented the full flowering of the Christian faith.

There was however a subversive element to the Gothic. In the 19th century the term "Goths" was used to describe the peoples whom we would call Angles, Saxons, Huns etc, moving across Europe after the fall of the Roman Empire. The view developed that the end of imperial rule left these peoples; who were seen as imaginative, courageous and intrepid; free to develop in their own ways, no longer constrained by the inflexible ways of the Empire. Thus the movements of peoples, trading and raiding, sagas and architecture of the time we call "The Dark Ages" into the medieval period were seen as the admirable products of free people rather than the constrained and regimented classicism of the Roman Empire.

Hence Gothic architecture: the vernacular building style of the "Goths" (which developed differently across Europe: Hungarian Gothic is very different to that of Italy, which differs again from that of Germany or England). Pugin, Ruskin and Morris, whom we may call the apostles of the English Gothic ideal, looked back on an ideal medieval world where free craftsmen created beautiful buildings embellished with carvings and traceries of their own design, not part of some controlling architectural master plan. Ruskin's schemes for rural crafts, Morris & Company's stained glass, furniture and textiles, were attempts to recreate this past ideal in the 19th century. It was a reaction to the Industrial Revolution.

For some, Ruskin and Pugin in particular, the medieval and Gothic styles were the essential style of the north and Britain, while the Classical was seen as dishonest and contrived.

Ruskin was well aware of the Renaissance principles and was simply not impressed by them. For him the beauty of architecture lay in the honest use of the materials to portray natural forms. He offered the highest praise for early Gothic ornament that attempted to portray natural forms such as leaves and vines in the tracery of buildings and on windows, and maintains that the fall of the Gothic period was brought about by dishonest use of materials. When stone is used to honestly ornament it is lovely, when it is used to imitate the structural elements of wood it becomes grotesque.

" It would be too painful a task to follow further the caricatures of form and eccentricities of treatment which grew out of this single abuse - the flattened arch, the shrunken pillar, the lifeless ornament, the liny moulding, the distorted and extravagant foliation, until the time came when, over these wrecks and remnants, deprived of all unity and principle, rose the foul torrent of the renaissance and swept them away. So fell the great dynasty of medieval architecture. It was because it had lost its own strength, and disobeyed its own laws - because its order, and consistency, and organization had been broken through that it could oppose no resistance to the rush of over whelming innovation." John Ruskin, The Seven Lamps of Architecture.

Parliament Buildings

In Contrasts (1836), Pugin expressed his admiration not only for mediæval art but the whole mediæval ethos, claiming that Gothic architecture was the product of a purer society. In The True Principles of Pointed or Christian Architecture (1841), he suggested that modern craftsmen seeking to emulate the style of medieval workmanship should also reproduce its methods. Pugin believed Gothic was true Christian architecture, boldly saying "The pointed arch was produced by the Catholic faith".


Parliament Buildings

Pugin's most famous building is The Houses of Parliament in London, which he designed in two campaigns, 1836 — 1837 and again in 1844 and 1852, with the classicist Charles Barry as his co- architect. Pugin provided the external decoration and the interiors, while Barry designed the symmetrical layout of the building, causing Pugin to remark, "All Grecian, Sir; Tudor details on a classic body".



Ruskin, Pugin, and the others who backed the revival of the Gothic style were revolting against the mechanization of the industrial revolution. Their ideas ultimately led to the Arts and Crafts movement


Pugin Church

Abbey Detail

The revived Gothic style became not only a style contradicting the Classical in both application and intent, but with a more robust understanding of the importance of the style within society, it became a vehicle for self expression.


Romanticism, Eclecticism and Belle Epoche

This part is coming soon, but lucky for you, it's not finished yet.




Quinta da Regaleira - Sintra - Portugal


Quinta DA Regaleira - Sintra - Portugal



Quinta DA Regaleira - Sintra - Portugal




Asman was the measure of all things and the base of all proportion, man's body had to be in pretty good shape. Consequently, there was a huge emphasis on physical fitness and strength. The

Sophocles, Aeschylus, Euripedes and Aristophanes laid down the pattern for Western theatre on these outdoor stages. The 21st Century terminology of the theatre : the proscenium, skena, even the vomitorium are all derived from the Greeks. When not being used to present Greek plays, the theatres were used for various Dionysian rituals and other pagan festivals.


Greeks had the technology to create arches, but did not exploit them as a building detail.


Olympia - East Gym




Olympia - Gym






Olympia - Colonnade


Doric Columns

Olympia - South Stadium













This figure of Zeus, made from clay and later caste in bronze, shows the power of the human form and the autonomy that the Greeks allowed for their Gods and for themselves.




Revivals and Ecclecticism Extra Reading and Films


Austin, Jane

Balzac, Honoré de, La Comédie humaine, (1815)

Dickens, Charles, A Tale of Two Cities (1859)

Dickens, Charles, Great Expectations (1861)

James, Henry, The Portrait of a Lady, (1881)

Tolstoy, Leo, Anna Karenina (1877)

Tolstoy, Leo, War and Peace (1869)


The Scarlet Pimpernel

1934 - Leslie Howard, Merle Oberon ****

1982 - Anthony Andrews, Jane Seymor *****

1999 - Richard E. Grant, E. McGovern ***

The Man in the Iron Mask - Girard Depardieu, Jeremy Irons, Gabriel Byrne

The Three Musketeers

1993 - Keifer Sutherland, Charlie Sheen

1973 - Michael York, Raquel Welch

Becoming Jane - Anne Hathaway, James McAvoy

Railing Railing Clock Mullion Entrance Tower Buttress Balustrade Parapet Overhang Signage Cantilevered Marquee Rotunda Bay Window Window Surround Band Band Bay Window Door Surround Window Surround Bay Window 12 over 12 Sash Windows Band Signage Parapet Sill Port Hole Window Port Hole Window Banding Banding Port Hole Window banding Sash Window Parapet Railing Door Surround Roundel Vitrolite Display Window Jamb Sash Windows Banding Door Surround Band Tower Muntin Band Sill Signage Parapet Mullion Frontispiece Parapet Band Balustrade Parapet Chimney Shutter Ziggurat Abacus Shaft Lintel Abacus Capital Lintel lintel Base colums Abacus Capital Shaft bas relief crest Abacus Base rubble stone walls Hypostyle Terrace Abacus Echinus Shaft entablature decorative banding or frieze architrave Doric Pediment Metope Cornice entablature Doric Abacus Triglyph Guttae architrave triglyph abacus echinus Guttae Guttae Triglyph Triglyph metope Cornice metope Triglyph Guttae Architrave Echinus Shaft Column Pediment Entablature Doric Echinus Echinus Echinus Echinus Abacus Abacus Medtope Medtope Medtope Triglyph Triglyph Triglyph Triglyph Cornice Medtope Architrave Abacus Fluting Fluting Fluting Guttae Guttae Guttae Guttae Triglyph Triglyph Triglyph Triglyph Triglyph Guttae Fluting Pediment Entablature Stylobate Lantern Pediment Entablature Columns Dome Coffer Dome Pilaster